Germany, Token, Louis XVI
Jeton de Nuremberg - eccles angl - MS(63) - Brass
LUD·XVI·D G·FR· - ET·NAV·REX· / in ex. : G
FVNDAMENTVM QVIETIS NOSTRAE. / in ex. : ECCLES. ANGL.
- Country: Germany
- Denomination: Token
- Composition: Brass
- Year: Undated
- Diameter: 25.5
- Character on medal: Louis XVI
- Token Title: Jeton de Nuremberg
- Specific remark in title: eccles angl
Brass has had a variety of names over the year… It was known as orichalcum (aurichalcum) by the Ancient Greeks and Romans, Florentine or Venetian bronze, yellow copper, similor, and even tombac. Its name may vary depending on the proportions of the recipe and its origin, but the composition of this alloy remains the same: a successful and beautiful marriage of zinc and copper.
The alloy is variable in spirits and color: the more zinc dominates, the whiter its hue, the more copper dominates, the more it glimmers with golden highlights.
In its monetary form, there is evidence dating from the 1st century BC, in the area of Asia Minor, most likely in the Kingdom of Pontus. Its usage then spread throughout Asia and Europe. Augustus notably substituted it for bronze for certain dupondii and sesterces. Much later, in the 18th century, it was a popular choice for tokens. Pinchbeck (a low-end brass) was used on medals to imitate gold.
The properties of the alloy may vary depending on the proportions of metals employed, but it is well known for its great malleability and good resistance to corrosion.
When copper constitutes the majority, the patina may turn green.
- Geographical location: Central Europe
- Current political regime: Federal constitutional parliamentary republic
- Current capital: Berlin
From the Germanic “barbarian” tribes of the 1st century AD, a constant source of concern for the Roman Empire, to the domination of the Kingdom of the Franks from the 5th to the 10th century, then under the rule of Charlemagne, it was first in the Middle Ages, following the deposition of Charles III (the Fat) in 887, that the Germanic people as we know them came to be.
This was then the age of the Holy Roman Empire, which would endure from the 9th to the end of the 18th century. An empire of exceptional longevity, whose flame would only be extinguished by the continuous advance of the Enlightenment, the neighboring French Revolution, and the unbridled expansionism of Napoleon Bonaparte.
The 19th century was turbulent and finally gave birth in 1871 to the Kaiserreich (German Empire), a federal state headed by a Kaiser (emperor), a Kanzler (chancellor), and the Reichstag (parliament). At the end of World War I, in 1918, the Kaiser was deposed and Germany deprived of 13% of its territory. This heralded in the era of the Weimar Republic, undermined from the very start by the Treaty of Versailles and the economic crisis. Hitler appeared on the scene.
He was appointed Chancellor in 1932 and subsequently, thanks to the Enabling Act of 1933, established a dictatorial system. After the death of President Hindenburg in 1934, the era of the Third Reich began with its madness, iron fist, terrifying policies, disheveled nationalism, and unlimited desire for expansion. The Third Reich and Axis powers would not surrender until May 1945.
After World War II and the Allied Occupation of Germany, the country was divided in two and the Iron Curtain came down as the Berlin Wall went up. The Wall did not fall until 1989, and divided Germany was finally reunified in 1990.
The currency of Germany has always been the mark, albeit in a variety of forms. The word “mark” has its origin in the Middle Ages. In the 12th century, the value of the mark was directly linked to the weight of the metal from which it was made.
The mark as a unit of currency was not defined until the Reichstag did so in 1871. It was then worth 1/1,395 of a pound of gold and divided into 100 pfennigs.
Then came the monetary reform of 1923 following hyperinflation (just imagine – 1 dollar back then would be worth up to 11.7 billion marks!), which introduced the Rentenmark against mortgage of the country’s capital. 1 billion Papiermark (paper marks) were equivalent to 1 Rentenmark. In 1924, once the situation had been stabilized, the Reichsmark was created and convertible into gold or foreign currency. It would endure until 1948.
In 1948, two currencies came into use: the western zone (future FRG) used the Deutsche Mark and the eastern zone (future GDR) used the East German mark. After the Reunification of Germany in 1990, only the Deutsche Mark (DM) remained.
In 2002, Germany switched to the euro (€).
Among other things, the Germans invented the printing press (Johannes Gutenberg,15th century), the automobile (Karl Benz, 1885), the streetcar (1881), aspirin (Felix Hoffmann, 1897), X-rays (Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen, 1895), and even coffee filters (Melitta Bentz, 1908).
Painting: "A View of the Opera and Unter den Linden, Berlin" by Eduard Gaertner (1845)
An “MS(63)” quality
As in numismatics it is important that the state of conservation of an item be carefully evaluated before it is offered to a discerning collector with a keen eye.
This initially obscure acronym comprising two words describing the state of conservation is explained clearly here:
This means – more prosaically – that it is very unlikely that the coin has circulated, even among few and careful hands. Traces of any manipulations are practically imperceptible and no patina or other form of oxidation has altered the object’s brilliance.